Gradadverb

Gradadverb berättar för oss om en händelses intensitet eller grad, eller om ett adjektiv eller ett annat adverb. Gradadverb placeras vanligen framför det adjektiv, det adverb, eller det verb de modifierar, även om det finns vissa undantag som vi undersöker närmare nedan.

Gradadverb Modifierar Exempel
extremely adjective The water was extremely cold.
quite adjective The movie is quite interesting.
just verb He was just leaving.
almost verb She has almost finished.
very adverb She is running very fast.
too adverb You are walking too slowly.
enough adverb You are running fast enough.

Att använda "enough"

Enough kan användas både som adverb och som determinativt pronomen.

Enough som adverb

Enough kommer, när det används som adverb i betydelsen "i en tillräcklig grad", efter det adjektiv eller det adverb det modifierar och inte framför, vilket är fallet  för andra adverb. Det kan användas både i jakande och nekande satser.

Exempel
  • Is your coffee hot enough?
  • This box isn't big enough.
  • He didn't work hard enough.
  • I got here early enough.

Enough följs ofta av "to" + infinitiv.

Exempel
  • He didn't work hard enough to pass the exam.
  • Is your coffee hot enough to drink?
  • She's not old enough to get married.
  • I got here early enough to sign up.

Enough kan också följas av "for someone" eller "for something".

Exempel
  • The dress was big enough for me.
  • She's not experienced enough for this job.
  • Is the coffee hot enough for you?
  • He didn't work hard enough for a promotion.
Enough som determinativt pronomen

Enough kommer, när det används som determinativt pronomen i betydelsen "tillräckligt mycket/många", före det substantiv det definierar. Det används tillsammans med odelbara substantiv i plural och tillsammans med delbara substantiv.

Exempel
  • We have enough bread.
  • You have enough children.
  • They don't have enough food.
  • I don't have enough apples.

Att använda "too"

"Too" är alltid ett adverb, men det kan ha två skilda betydelser, var och en med specifika användningsmönster.

Too i betydelsen "also"

Too som ett adverb i betydelsen "också" kommer sist i den fras den modifierar.

Exempel
  • I would like to go swimming too, if you will let me come.
  • Can I go to the zoo too?
  • Is this gift for me too?
  • I'm not going to clean your room too!
Too i betydelsen "excessively"

Too som ett adverb i betydelsen "överdrivet" kommer före det adjektviv eller det adverb det modifierar. Det kan användas i både affirmativa och negative satser.

Exempel
  • This coffee is too hot.
  • He works too hard.
  • Isn't she too young?
  • I am not too short!

Too följs ofta av "to" + infinitiv

Exempel
  • The coffee was too hot to drink.
  • You're too young to have grandchildren!
  • I am not too tired to go out tonight.
  • Don't you work too hard to have any free time?

Too kan också följas av "for someone" eller "for something".

Exempel
  • The coffee was too hot for me.
  • The dress was too small for her.
  • He's not too old for this job.
  • Sally's not too slow for our team.

Att använda "very"

Very placeras innan ett adverb eller ett adjektiv för att förstärka det.

Exempel
  • The girl was very beautiful.
  • The house is very expensive.
  • He worked very quickly.
  • She runs very fast.

Om vi vill bilda en negativ form av ett adjektiv eller av ett adverb, kan vi lägga till "not" till adverbet.  Vi kan använda ett adjektiv eller ett adverb med motsatt betydelse, eller så kan vi använda "not very" tillsammans med det ursprungliga adjektivet eller adverbet. Frasernas betydelse är inte identisk. Vanligtvis är en sats som innehåller "not very" mindre direkt, och därmed artigare, än de andra fraserna.

Exempel
Ursprunglig sats Ursprunglig betydelse med "not" Motsatt betydelse med "not very" Motsatt betydelse med ett motsatsord
The girl was beautiful. The girl was not beautiful. The girl was not very beautiful. The girl was ugly.
He worked quickly. He did not work quickly. He did not work very quickly. He worked slowly.
Betydelseskillnad mellan "very" och "too"

Det finns en stor skillnad i betydelse mellan "too" och "very". "Very" uttrycker ett faktum medans "too" indikerar att det finns ett problem.

Exempel
  • He speaks very quickly.
  • He speaks too quickly for me to understand.
  • It is very hot outside.
  • It is too hot outside to go for a walk.
Andra adverb som används som "very"

Vissa vanliga adverb används på samma sätt som "very", för att höja adjektivs och adverbs grad.

Uttrycker mycket starka känslor Uttrycker starka känslor Uttrycker något tvekande känslor
extremely, terribly, amazingly, wonderfully, insanely especially, particularly, uncommonly, unusually, remarkably, quite pretty, rather, fairly, not especially, not particularly
The movie was amazingly interesting. The movie was particularly interesting. The movie was fairly interesting.
She sang wonderfully well. She sang unusually well. She sang pretty well.
The lecture was terribly boring. The lecture was quite boring. The lecture was rather boring.

Inversion med negativa adverb

Normalt kommer subjektet före verbet, men vissa negativa adverb kan orsaka en inversion när de placeras i början av satsen. Ordningsföljden är omvänd och verbet kommer före subjektet. Denna inversion används endast i skrift, inte i talspråk.

Adverb Normal ordföljd Inversion
Never I have never seen such courage. Never have I seen such courage.
Rarely She rarely left the house. Rarely did she leave the house.
Not only She did not only the cooking but the cleaning as well. Not only did she do the cooking, but the cleaning as well.
Scarcely I scarcely closed the door before he started talking. Scarcely did I close the door before he started talking.
Seldom We seldom cross the river after sunset. Seldom do we cross the river sunset.