Imperfekt

Imperfekt och dess funktioner

Imperfekt används för att tala om ett fullbordat agerande i en tid innan nutid. Agerandets varaktighet har ingen betydelse. Tiden för agerandet kan ha varit nyligen eller för länge sedan.

Exempel
  • John Cabot sailed to America in 1498.
  • My father died last year.
  • He lived in Fiji in 1976.
  • We crossed the Channel yesterday.

Man använder alltid imperfekt när man berättar när någonting hände och därför associeras imperfekt alltid med vissa ord som uttrycker dåtid.

  • frekvens: often, sometimes, always
    I sometimes walked home at lunchtime.
    I often brought my lunch to school.
  • en bestämd tidpunkt: last week, when I was a child, yesterday, six weeks ago
    We saw a good film last week.
    Yesterday, I arrived in Geneva.
    She finished her work atseven o'clock
    I went to the theatre last night
  • en obestämd tidpunkt: the other day, ages ago, a long time ago People lived in caves a long time ago.
  • She played the piano when she was a child.

Notera: ordet ago är användbart för att uttrycka distans i tiden. Det placeras efter tidsperioden: a week ago, three years ago, a minute ago.

Var försiktig: Engelskans imperfekt kan likna ett tempus som finns i ditt eget språk, men betydelsen kan vara en annan.

Att bilda Imperfekt

Mönster för imperfekt av regelbundna verb
Jakande
Subjekt + verb + ed  
I skipped.  
Nekande
Subjekt + did not + infinitiv utan to
They didn't go.
Frågande
Did + subjekt + infinitiv utan to
Did she arrive?
Frågande och nekande
Did not + subjekt + infinitiv utan to
Didn't you play?
To Walk
Jakande Nekande Frågande
I walked I didn't walk Did I walk?
You walked You didn't walk Did you walk?
He walked He didn't walk Did he walk?
We walked We didn't walk Did we walk?
They walked They didn't walk Did they walk?
Imperfekt av to be, to have, to do
Subjekt Verb
  Be Have Do
I was had did
You were had did
He/She/It was had did
We were had did
You were had did
They were had did

Anmärkningar om jakande, nekande och frågande former

Jakande

Jakande imperfekt är enkelt.

  • I was in Japan last year
  • She had a headache yesterday.
  • We did our homework last night.
Nekande och frågande

För nekande och frågande former av imperfekt tillsammans med "do" som huvudverb, ska hjälpverbet "do"användas, dvs We didn't do our homework last night.
Den nekande imperfektformen av "have", bildas vanligtvis tillsammans med hjälpverbet "do", men ibland lägger man bara till not eller förkortningen "n't".

Den frågande formen av "have" i imperfekt, bildas vanligtvis tillsammans med hjälpverbet "do".

Exempel
  • They weren't in Rio last summer.
  • We didn't have any money.
  • We didn't have time to visit the Eiffel Tower.
  • We didn't do our exercises this morning.
  • Were they in Iceland last January?
  • Did you have a bicycle when you were young?
  • Did you do much climbing in Switzerland?

Notera: För de nekande och frågande imperfektformerna av alla verb, används alltid hjälpverbet 'did''.

Imperfekt, oregelbundna verb

Vissa verb är oregelbundna i imperfekt. Här är de allra vanligaste.

to go
  • He went to a club last night.
  • Did he go to the cinema last night?
  • He didn't go to bed early last night.
to give
  • We gave her a doll for her birthday.
  • They didn't give John their new address.
  • Did Barry give you my passport?
to come
  • My parents came to visit me last July.
  • We didn't come because it was raining.
  • Did he come to your party last week?