Former med -ing

Ett verb som slutar på -ing är antingen presens particip eller ett gerundium. Dessa två former ser identiska ut. Skillnaden ligger i den funktion de har i meningen.

Presens particip

Presens particip används oftast som en del i ett verbs progressiva form, efter perceptionsverb, efter rörelseverb, eller som ett adjektiv.

Presens particip som en del av verbets progressiva form

Presens particip är en del i alla progressiva verbformer (dåtid, nutid, futurum, konditionalis, etc.). Hjälpverbet indikerar tempus, medan presens particip förblir oförändrat.

Exempel
  • He is painting.
  • She was waiting.
  • They will be coming.
  • We would be staying.
  • I would have been leaving.
Presens particip efter perceptionsverb

Presens particip kan användas efter perceptionsverb enligt mönstret verb + objekt + presens particip för att indikera det agerande som uppfattas.

Exempel
  • We saw him swimming across the pond.
  • I watched her painting Sarah's portrait.
  • I couldn't hear her singing because of the noise.
  • I would like to see you knitting sometime.
Presens particip efter rörelseverb, agerande eller position, för att indikera en parallell aktivitet.
Exempel
  • She sat looking at the sea.
  • He walks reading his newspaper.
  • I cook listening to the radio.
  • Sally lay listening to the bugs in the grass.
Presens particip som adjektiv
Exempel
  • Did you read that amazing book?
  • This movie is so exciting!
  • His economics class is boring.

Läs mer om hur presens particip används.

Gerundium

Gerundium har alltid samma funktion som ett substantiv, trots att det ser ut som ett verb. Det kan användas på samma sätt som ett substantiv.

Gerundium som meningens subjekt
Exempel
  • Eating people is wrong.
  • Driving too fast is dangerous.
  • Walking is good for you.
  • Your knitting is beautiful.
Gerundium efter prepositioner
Exempel
  • Can you sneeze without opening your mouth?
  • She is good at painting.
  • I was the fastest at climbing the rope.
  • He learns music by listening to the chords.
Gerundium efter vissa specifika verb
Exempel
  • I like cooking.
  • He enjoys walking.
  • They hate milking cows.
  • I can imagine drifting away in a balloon.
Gerundium i sammansatta substantiv
Exempel
  • I took her to her driving lessons.
  • We are going to the swimming pool.
  • My uncle does a lot of bird-watching.
  • I found this pie by dumpster-diving.

Läs mer om hur gerundium används.