Konditionalis 3

Form

I meningar med konditionalis 3 är tempus i 'if'-satsen past perfect, medan tempus i huvudsatsen är perfect conditional eller perfect continuous conditional.

If-sats (tillstånd) Huvudsats (resultat)
If + pluskvamperfekt perfect conditional eller perfect continuous conditional
If this thing had happened that thing would have happened.

Liksom i alla meningar med konditionalis är satsernas ordningsföljd inte bestämd. Du kan komma att behöva modifiera pronomen och justera interpunktionen när du ändrar satsernas inbördes ordning, men betydelsen förblir densamma.

Exempel
  • If it had rained, you would have gotten wet.
  • You would have gotten wet if it had rained.
  • You would have passed your exam if you had worked harder.
  • If you had worked harder, you would have passed your exam.
  • I would have believed you if you hadn't lied to me before.
  • If you hadn't lied to me before, I would have believed you.

Funktion

Konditionalis 3 syftar på ett omöjligt tillstånd och dess sannolika resultat i dåtid. Dessa meningar är verkligen hypotetiska och orelistiska, eftersom att det nu är försent för tillståndet och dess resultat att existera. Meningar med konditionalis 3 har alltid en innebörd av ånger. Verkligheten står i motsats till det meningen ger uttryck för. I meningar med konditionalis 3 är tiden dåtid och situationen är hypotetisk.

Exempel
  • If I had worked harder I would have passed the exam. (But I didn't work hard, and I didn't pass the exam.)
  • If I had known you were coming I would have baked a cake. (But I didn't know and I didn't bake a cake.)
  • I would have been happy if you had called me on my birthday. (But you didn't call me and I am not happy.)

I meningar med konditionalis 3, kan du också använda modaler i huvudsatsen istället för "would" för att uttrycka graden av säkerhet, tillåtelse, eller för att ge råd om slutresultatet.

Exempel
  • If I had worked harder I might have passed the exam.
  • You could have been on time if you had caught the bus.
  • If he called you, you could go.
  • If you bought my school supplies for me, I might be able to go to the park.
Förkortningar

Både would och had kan förkortas till 'd, vilket kan vara förvirrande om du inte är bekant med meningar som innehåller konditionalis 3. Kom ihåg två regler:
1. would förekommer aldrig i en if-sats, så om 'd finns i satsen så måste det vara en förkortning av had.
2. had förekommer aldrig före have så om 'd finns på ett pronomen precis innan have, måste det vara en förkorning av would.

Exempel
  • If I'd known you were in hospital, I'd have visited you.
  • If I had known you were in hospital, I would have visited you.
  • I'd have bought you a present if I'd known it was your birthday.
  • I would have bought you a present if I had known it was your birthday.
  • If you'd given me your e-mail, I'd have written to you.
  • If you had given me your e-mail, I would have written to you.

Konditionalis i perfekt

Alla verbs konditionalis i perfektfom  är sammansatt av tre delar:
would + have + perfekt particip
Have följt av perfekt particip används även i andra konstruktioner och kallas då "perfekt infinitiv".

Subjekt + would + have + perfekt particip
He would have gone
They would have stayed
To Go: konditionalis i perfekt
Jakande Nekande Frågande Frågande och nekande
I would have gone I wouldn't have gone Would I have gone? Wouldn't I have gone?
You would have gone You wouldn't have gone Would you have gone? Wouldn't you have gone?
He would have gone He wouldn't have gone Would he have gone? Wouldn't he have gone?
She would have gone She wouldn't have gone Would she have gone? Wouldn't she have gone?
We would have gone We wouldn't have gone Would we have gone? Wouldn't we have gone?
They would have gone They wouldn't have gone Would they have gone? Wouldn't they have gone?