Passivform

Passivformens funktioner

Passivformen används för att visa intresse för den person eller det objekt som upplever/utsätts för ett agerande, hellre än den person eller det objekt som utför agerandet. Med andra ord blir subjektet meningens viktigaste person eller viktigaste sak.

Exempel
  • The passive voice is used frequently. (= vi är intresserade av passivformen, inte av den som använder den.)
  • The house was built in 1654. (= vi är intresserade av huset, inte av den som byggde det.)
  • The road is being repaired. (= vi är intresserade av vägen, inte av de personer som reparerar den.)

Ibland använder vi passivformen därför att vi inte vet, eller inte vill säga, vem som utförde handlingen.

Exempel
  • I noticed that a window had been left open.
  • Every year thousands of people are killed on our roads.
  • All the cookies have been eaten.
  • My car has been stolen!

Passivformen används ofta i formella texter. Att byta till aktivform gör ditt skrivande tydligare och mer lättläst.

Passiv Aktiv
A great deal of meaning is conveyed by a few well-chosen words. A few well-chosen words convey a great deal of meaning.
Our planet is wrapped in a mass of gases. A mass of gases wrap around our planet.
Waste materials are disposed of in a variety of ways. The city disposes of waste materials in a variety of ways.

Om vi vill säga vem eller vad som utför en handling när vi använder passivformen, använder vi prepositionen by. När vi vet vem som utförde handlingen och vi är intresserade av denne, är det alltid bättre att istället gå över till aktivform.

Passiv Aktiv
"A Hard Day's Night" was written by the Beatles. The Beatles wrote "A Hard Day's Night".
The movie ET was directed by Spielberg. Spielberg directed the movie ET.
This house was built by my father. My father built this house.

Läs mer om passivformen och dess aktiva motsvarigheter för verbens alla tempusformer i engelskan.

Att bilda passivform

Engelskans passivform är sammansatt av två delar:
lämplig böjning av verbet 'to be' + perfekt particip

Jakande Nekande Frågande Nekande och frågande
The house was built in 1899. The house wasn't built in 1899. Was the house built in 1899? Wasn't the house built in 1899?
These houses were built in 1899. These houses weren't built in 1899. Were these houses built in 1899? Weren't these houses built in 1899?
To clean, passivform
Subjekt + to be (böjt) + perfekt particip + resten av meningen
Simple present
The house is cleaned every day.
Present continuous
The house is being cleaned at the moment.
Simple past
The house was cleaned yesterday.
Past continuous
The house was being cleaned last week.
Present perfect
The house has been cleaned since you left.
Past perfect
The house had been cleaned before they arrived.
Future
The house will be cleaned next week.
Future continuous
The house will be being cleaned tomorrow.
Present conditional
The house would be cleaned if they had visitors.
Past conditional
The house would have been cleaned if it had been dirty.
Inifinitive
The house must be cleaned before we arrive.
Passivform tillsammans med infinitiv

Den passiva formen av infinitiv används efter modala verb och de flesta andra verb som normalt följs av infinitiv.

Exempel
  • You have to be tested on your English grammar.
  • John might be promoted next year.
  • She wants to be invited to the party.
  • I expect to be surprised on my birthday.
  • You may be disappointed.
Passivform tillsammans med gerundium

Gerundium används efter prepositioner och verb som normalt följs av gerundium.

Exempel
  • I remember being taught to drive.
  • The children are excited about being taken to the zoo.
  • The children are excited to be taken to the zoo.
  • Most film stars hate being interviewed.
  • Most film stars hate to be interviewed.
  • Poodles like to be pampered.
  • Poodles like being pampered.
Att använda "to be born"

"To be born" är  passivform och används oftast tillsammans med tempus som uttrycker dåtid. Men i en del fall kan presens eller futurum vara lämpliga.

Exempel
  • I was born in 1976.
  • Where were you born?
  • Around 100 babies are born in this hospital every week.
  • We don't know on exactly which day the baby will be born.

Ibland bildas passivformen genom att man använder verbet to get eller to have istället för verbet to be. En separat sida behandlar dessa alternativa sätt att bilda passivform.